Kultur, Zoologi og metafysisk spekulasjon

This is phenomenology

In Filosofi on desember 3, 2011 at 9:37 pm

Edmund Husserl

“Phenomenology, understood as the philosophical approach originated by Edmund Husserl in the early years of the twentieth century, has a complex history. In part it is the basis for what has become known as continental philosophy, where ‘continental’ means the European continent, despite the fact that much of continental philosophy since 1960 has been done in America. Within this designation one finds a number of philosophical approaches, some building on the insights of phenomenology, such as existentialism and hermeneutics (theory of interpretation), and others reacting critically against phenomenology, including certain post-structuralist or post-modernist ideas. There is, however, a line of major philosophical thinkers, including Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty, who extend phenomenological philosophy from its origins in Husserl.” (Shaun Gallagher and Dan Zahavi, 2008, The Phenomenological Mind, p.9-10)

“The expression ‘phenomenology’ signifies primarily a methodological conception. This expression does not characterize the what of the objects of philosophical research as subject-matter, but rather the how of that research.” (Martin Heidegger, 1962, Being and Time, p.49)

Martin Heidegger

”Phenomenology may be characterised initially in a broad sense as the unprejudiced, descriptive study of whatever appears to consciousness, precisely in the manner in which it appears. (…) Phenomenology is usually characterized as a way of seeing rather than a set of doctrines.” (Dermot Moran, 2002, The Phenomenology Reader, p.1)

“Phenomenology has reached its goal when every symbol and half-symbol is completely fulfilled through the “self-given”, including everything which functions in the natural world-view and in science as a form of understanding (everything “categorical”); when everything transcendent and only “meant” has become immanent to a lived experience and intuition. It has reached its goal at the point where there is no longer any transcendent symbol. Everything which elsewhere is still formal becomes, for phenomenology, a material for intuition. And the attitude phenomenological philosophy has toward a religious object or an ethical value is exactly the same as the one it has toward the color red.” (Max Scheler, 1973, Phenomenology and the theory of cognition, p.145)

Max Scheler

“Phenomenology is accordingly the theory of experience in general, inclusive of all matters, whether real (reellen) or intentional, given in experience, and evidently discoverable in them. Pure phenomenology is accordingly the theory of essences of ‘pure phenomena’, the phenomena of ‘pure consciousness’ or of a ‘pure ego’: it does not build on the ground, given by transcendent apperception, of physical and animal, and so of psycho-physical nature, it makes no empirical assertions, it propounds no judgements which relate to objects transcending consciousness: it establishes no truths concerning natural realities, whether physical or psychic, – no psychological truths, therefore, in the historical sense – and burrows no such truths as assumed premises. It rather takes all apperceptions and judgemental assertions which point beyond what is given in adequate, purely immanent intuition, which point beyond the pure stream of consciousness, and treats them purely a the experiences they are in themselves: it subjects them to a purely immanent, purely descriptive examination into essence.” (Edmund Husserl, 1913, Logical Investigations,p.343)

“Currently, the term ‘phenomenology’ is increasingly used by philosophers of mind and cognitive scientists to designate a first-person description of the ‘what it is like’ of experience.” (Shaun Gallagher and Dan Zahavi, 2008, The Phenomenological Mind, p.10)

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